Flat Dilatometer (DMT) downloadable papers.

Prof. S. Marchetti silvano@marchetti-dmt.it       Tel  +39 06 303.60.107

This is NOT a commercial website.

For this kind of info : link

Abstract: A dilatometer test consists of pushing a flat blade located at the end of a series of rods. Once at the testing depth, a circular steel membrane located on one side of the blade is expanded horizontally into the soil. The pressure is recorded at specific moments during the test. The blade is then advanced to the next test depth.

The main application of the DMT is to estimate Settlements and Operative Moduli, both in sands and clays, and the undrained shear strength in clay.

Other design applications include: compaction control, detecting slip surfaces in slopes, liquefiability, laterally loaded piles and other geotechnical problems using the soil parameters for which the instrument provides estimates.

Often DMT is requested by engineers in jobs where accurate predictions of settlements of foundations are needed or when a decision has to be taken about adopting a shallow or a deep foundation.


DFIMEC 2014 Latest developments on in situ testing, pile-raft foundations and FEM (DUBAI 2-3 April 2014 (info)

Emerging Technologies in Field Testing and Soil Characterization Tanta University -  Lecture by Dr. Buselli on DMT and SDMT. Description, Interpretation, Application, Field tests Egypt, Apr 13 2014 (info)

Workshop on Flat Dilatometer and Seismic Dilatometer (Hamilton-Ontario, CANADA 30 May 2014)  (info)

5th International Conference on CPTU and DMT (POZNAN 22-23 September 2014)  (info)

3rd International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer DMT'15, ROME 15-17 June 2015 (info)
Under the auspices of Technical Committee TC-102 of the ISSMGE, of the Italian Geotechnical Society and L'Aquila University.

Role of the DMT: The most critical ingredients for a correct geotechnical design are, as today, the input soil parameters (we have plentiful "precise" computer programs).
Considering the disillusionment with "undisturbed" soil samples & laboratory testing (costly, uncertain quality, few data, time), the trend in the last decades has been towards in situ testing, that is often today the major portion of a geotechnical investigation (e.g. Schmertmann 1995, Powell 2001).
According to many eminent scientists (see e.g. State of the Art at the last Geotechnical World Conference 2009), the most practical and fast in situ tests - for everyday design - are CPT and DMT, the other methods being considered by these scientists too costly or complicated or slow.
CPT is faster than DMT, hence in many cases it is preferable and sufficient. However, in the frequent case that the design requires accurate settlement predictions, CPT may be not sufficient, as CPT often provides inaccurate settlement estimates (e.g. Robertson 1986, Leonards 1988, Jamiolkowski 1988, Schnaid 2009) and therefore DMT data, predicting well settlements, become preferable. DMT is also considerably more sensitive to stress history, which dominates soil behaviour (e.g. stress history is important for deformation analysis, for liquefaction evaluations etc.). The higher sensitivity to stress history is also the reason why DMT monitors the benefits of compaction twice as sensitively as CPT.
The DMT blade is also considerably more sensitive to horizontal stresses. Due to the flat shape, arching is negligible, as opposite to axi-symmetric probes, where arching obscures the horizontal stress.

September 2011 DMT automatic acquisition

Editorial July 2010 Direct-push in situ tests : will they be the basis of our investigations ? Can direct-push replace lab? Notions emerged at CPT'10. Differences CPT - DMT.

Sand liquefaction: two recent papers (Tsai et al. 2009 and Kung and Tsai 2010), kindly signaled to the writer by Prof. Robertson, are believed to represent a breakthrough advancement in evaluating CRR (Cyclic Resistance Ratio) by DMT. Tsai's updated CRR-Kd curve (Tsai's Eqn. 8, or Fig. 11) is obtained as the translation of the large SPT & CPT liquefaction experimental base, in particular of the correlations CRR-Nspt and CRR-Qc1 (eqn. 4 and eqn. 11 in Youd & Idriss (2001). Such Tsai's CRR-Kd curve is the one that the writer would use today in engineering practice.

Distinctive features of DMT:

Soil distortions. The dilatometer distorts the soil substantially less than other penetration tests.
Deformation properties. DMT measures the pressure causing a given soil displacement (a mini load-test). Hence DMT results are closer to moduli than tests providing soil rupture data.
DMT is a genuine two-parameter test, one of which, Kd, is closely correlated to Stress History, a parameter having a substantial influence on Settlements and Resistance to Liquefaction.
Arching effect. The penetration of cylindrical probes creates a stiff soil ring surrounding the probe (Robertson & Hughes 1995). Such obstacle/parasitic screen reduces the sensitivity to Sigma h (Huang 1994). The arching effect is nearly nonexisting with the DMT flat blade (L/B ratio = 7), resulting in a higher sensitivity to Sigma h.
Compaction control. The DMT has been found to be about twice as sensitive to compaction as other penetration tests (e.g. Schmertmann 1986, Jendeby 1992, Pasqualini 1993, De Cock-Van Impe-Peiffer 1993).


Cape Kennedy Space Center
Rome Metro underground
San Andreas Fault area
Nearshore Investigations by DMT
Score table of various in-situ test


SDMT in Costarica

Juan Santamaria Intnl. Airport

courtesy of MYV - San José

Key References

(downloadable – see links below)

Dilatometer (DMT):

TC16 DMT Report by the ISSMGE (2001): a comprehensive document incorporating all the most important information
DMT Course Notes (2001) (Marchetti and Monaco): usable as a "User's manual" by DMT technicians. Procedure. Maintenance. Quality checks.

Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT):

Marchetti et al. (2008) Schmertmann Volume
Monaco et al. (2009) "Interrelationship ..", IS-Tokyo2009

Students: Schnaid's textbook "In Situ Testing" - Chapter 6 on DMT      

Manual DMT Briaud (1992) - US DOT Federal Highway Admin.

Content of 1-day Course on DMT and Seismic DMT (SDMT)

- Hardware, Working Principle, Procedure, Standards, Maintenance, Field equipment for running the test on land and offshore, testable soils.
- Using the results in the profession : Soil parameters, Settlements of shallow foundations and assessment of their accuracy by comparisons between observed and DMT-predicted settlements, Kh behind diaphragm walls from MDMT, Moduli before-after compaction, Moduli in roads subgrade, Laterally loaded piles, Detecting slip surfaces in slopes.
Seismic Dilatometer. Measurement of the shear wave velocity Vs, Combining the "low-strain" shear modulus Go with the "working strain" modulus Mdmt - both provided by SDMT - to help selecting the G-Gamma decay curves.
Liquefaction resistance evaluated by SDMT in two independent ways : from Vs and from Kd.. Sensitivity of Kd to aging, Importance of accounting for aging.
- Data reduction, presentation of results, diagrams, seismograms, Auto-Report generation.
- Troubleshooting, Quality controls, FAQ. Case-histories presented by invited experts.
- Participants will have the opportunity of executing a few measurements.

2nd International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer - Washington, D.C. April 2006
Index of the Conference papers
Proceedings and full Video of the Conference are available from R. Failmezger

Special Lectures at the Conference:
- John Schmertmann “How the Dilatometer moved the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse”
- Michele Jamiolkowski “Zelazny Most Tailings Pond: Site Characterization”
- Michele Maugeri “Liquefaction Potential Evaluation by SDMT”
- Silvano Marchetti “Summary of DMT Interpretation and Applications”
- Diego Marchetti “Software for handling combinedly Dilatometer and Seismic data”
- Failmezger R. (2006) "Thank you for attending the DMT 2006 Conference" (message)

Comparison between observed and DMT predicted modulus


  VIDEO (20 MB) by R. Failmezger

  VIDEO (70 MB) by N. Cruz

  Slide show on (S)DMT:  (824 KB),  (print version 2.6MB)

  Seismic DMT offshore (8 slides 2.9 MB)


  Photos DMT and SDMT   Test Layout   Machines for DMT Insertion
  Examples of Results   Settlement-Moduli Comparisons   Cu comparisons


  Interpretation Formulae   Database DMT sites in Italy   Soils testable by DMT
  Working principle animation   Software: update, download ...   Specifications (Engl   Ital)
  Dmt Users Community   Quality Certification   Bibliography
  Choice of Rig and Rods   Reading Hints   Field Data Sheets ( Engl   Ital )
  Compaction   Plaxis Parameters   Settlement Prediction
  Troubleshooting Hardware   Troubleshooting Interpretation   Troubleshooting


  • Schnaid F.  (2009). Book "In Situ Testing in Geomechanics - the main tests". Taylor & Francis Group, London: 327 p. Chapter 6 (16 pp). Flat Dilatometer testing (DMT)  (pdf format 1.4 MB) [Excerpt from prof. Schnaid's textbook, an excellent combination of modern research with knowledge useful to practicing engineers. The textbook is recommended to students and designers]
  • Failmezger R. & Bullock P.  (2011) "Owner Involvement - Chosing Risk Factors for Shallow Foundations", Proc. GeoRisk 2011 Atlanta pp 1098-1108 ASCE  (full paper 200 KB)  (2 pages 160 KB)  [Focuses on settlement prediction methods. Importance of accurately predicting settlements to avoid owner paying an excessive price for poor design]
  • Marchetti S.  (2011) Discussion of "CPT-DMTCorrelations" by Robertson P.K., Jnl GGE Apr.,137,4.  (pdf format 300 KB) [Analyses similarities-diversities CPT-DMT]
  • Kung G. T. & Tsai P.  (2010) "Examination of existing DMT-based liquefaction evaluation methods by side-by-side DMT and CPT tests", 5th Intern. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics and Symposium in Honor of Professor I.M. Idriss  (pdf format 1.5 MB)
  • Marchetti S.  (2010) "Sensitivity of CPT and DMT to stress history and aging in sands for liquefaction assessment", Proc. CPT 2010 Int.nl Symposium Huntington Beach, California  (Abstract & Conclusions doc 60 kB)   (Paper 8 pp 150 k)
  • Cruz N.  (2010) "Excerpts from PhD Thesis"",  (pdf format 0.25 MB)
  • Tsai P., Lee D., Kung G.T. & Juang C.H.  (2009) "Simplified DMT-based methods for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils", Engineering Geology 103,13-22  (pdf format 2.2 MB)
  • Monaco et al. (2009) "Interrelationship between Small Strain Modulus Go and Operative Modulus". IS-Tokyo2009. International Conference on Performance-Based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. June 2009 (pdf format 0.5 MB)  [Data from a wide variety of sites worldwide suggest: (1) It is fallacious to use Su or Nspt -for seisimc classification- as a substitute for Vs; (2) Estimating the "operative modulus" as Go divided by a constant maybe highly uncertain]
  • Robertson P.K. (2009). "CPT-DMT Correlations". Jnl ASCE GGE, 135,11 10pp (pdf format 0.9 MB)
  • Totani et al. (2009) "Vs measurements by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) in non-penetrable soils" Proc. 17th ICSMGE Alexandria Egypt. Oct. 2009 (pdf format 1.4 MB)  [May be useful to obtain Vs profiles in gravel]
  • List (2009 March) "Some Seismic Dilatometer Test Sites" (pdf format 16 KB)
  • Protezione Civile - Gruppo di Lavoro (2008) "Indirizzi e criteri per la microzonazione sismica" Prova DMT pp. 391-397, (doc format 0.3 MB), Prova SDMT pp. 397-405 (doc format 2.7 MB)
  • Consiglio Superiore dei Lavori Pubblici (2008) "Istruzioni per l'applicazione Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni". Bozza 7.3.09 (pdf format 55 KB)
  • Marchetti et al.  (2008) "In Situ Tests by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT)", ASCE Geot. Special Publication GSP No. 170 Schmertmann Volume  (doc format 1.7 MB)
  • Failmezger R.A. & Bullock P.J. (2008). Which in-situ test should I use? -- a designer's guide. Ohio River Valley Soils Seminar 39, Cincinnati, Ohio  (pdf format 1.23 MB)
  • Marchetti et al.  (2008) "Vs evaluation from DMT data"  (english  italian)
  • Monaco & Marchetti (2007) "Evaluating Liquefaction Potential by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) accounting for Aging" Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on Earthquake Geotech. Eng. Thessaloniki, June 2007 (pdf format 0.6 MB)
  • Monaco & Schmertmann (2007) Discussion of "Accounting for Soil Aging When Assessing Liquefaction Potential" by Leon, E. et al. J. Geotech. Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE 133(9), 1177 (pdf format 0.3 MB)
  • Monaco et al  (2007) "DMT and SDMT. Design Applications and Recent Developments" Australia New Zealand Conf. Geomechanics   (ppt presentation)
  • Monaco & Marchetti  (2007) "Evaluating Liquefaction Potential by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) accounting for Aging" Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on Earthquake Geotech. Eng. Thessaloniki, June 2007    (pdf format)
  • Monaco & Schmertmann (2007) Discussion of "Accounting for Soil Aging When Assessing Liquefaction Potential" by Leon, E. et al. J. Geotech. Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE 133(9), 1177 (pdf format 0.3 MB)
  • Marchetti D. et al. (2007) "Risultato di prove in sito mediante Dilatometro Sismico (SDMT)" Proc. 23rd Italian Conf SMGE, Padova, May 2007 (in italian)  (doc format 3.7 MB)
  • Huang (2006) Bottom mud reservoir sediment by DMT (pdf format 700 KB)
  • Maugeri & Monaco(2006) "Liquefaction Potential Evaluation by SDMT" Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 295-305 Apr (doc format)
  • Monaco, Totani, Calabrese (2006) "DMT-predicted vs. observed settlements: a review of the available experience" Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 244-252 (pdf format)
  • Foti, Lancellotta, Marchetti, Monaco, Totani (2006) "Interpretation of SDMT tests in a transversely isotropic medium", Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 275-280 (pdf format)
  • Monaco et al. (2005) "Sand liquefiability assessment by Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT)", Proc. 16th ICSMGE – Osaka  (pdf format)
  • Gil Megia (2004) Curso Tecnico de Perforación - DMT spanish (pdf format 500 KB)
  • Monaco & Marchetti (2004)"Evaluation of the coefficient of subgrade reaction for design of multi-propped diaphragm walls from DMT moduli", Proc. Intnl Site Characterization ISC’2 – Porto Portugal (pdf format)
  • SDMT - Seismic Dilatometer (2004), (SDMT Information 1.1 MB)
  • Dmt Dissip (Dec 2002), Windows program for  DMT Dissipations. (Sample Diagrams  ,InfoDownload)
  • Dmt Elab (July 2002), Windows program for DMT. Dmt Elab also generates files *.uni used for settlements.  (Sample Diagrams , Info  , Download, Manual)
  • Mayne, Martin, Schneider (1999) "Small- and Large-Strain Soil Properties from Seismic Flat Dilatometer Tests", Proc. Pre-failure Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials, Jamiolkowski et al. editors, Torino.  (pdf format 1 MB)   [SDMT adds to the "standard" DMT the capability of determining Go. "E" and Go are then used combinedly to identify the modulus degradation curve]
  • Devincenzi (2002) "El ensayo dilatométrico de Marchetti". Geotecnia 2002 (in Espanol)  (pdf format  0.8 MB)
  • Plaxis parameters (2002) "Hard Soil Model : E50,ref  can be estimated from oedometer data (M)"  (pdf format  0.1 MB)
  • ASTM D6635-01 (2002) "Standard Test Method for Performing the Flat Plate Dilatometer". Book of Standards Vol. 04.09
  • Youd T. L.& Idriss I. M. (2001) "Liquefaction Resistance of Soils : Summary Report from the 1996 and 1998 NCEER Workshops", ASCE Jnl. GGE, 127, 4, 297-313  (pdf format 0.3 MB)
  • Marchetti S. (2001) "The Flat dilatometer", 18th CGT - Conferenze Geotecnica Torino, 56 pp.  (pdf format  0.8 MB or  doc format  1.1 MB)   [Slides, in English]
  • DMT Course Notes (2001) by Marchetti and Monaco, Bali Insitu 2001, 77 pp.  (pdf format  or  doc format 4 MB).  [Detailed figures on equipment, procedure, maintenance, tolerances and quality checks. A kind of "User's Manual", thought for technicians actually performing DMT]
  • TC16 (2001)  "The DMT in Soil Investigations", A Report by the ISSMGE Committee TC16, 41 pp.  (pdf format or doc format 1 MB) ; (click here for the Italian version)   [A comprehensive official reference covering in detail Field operations, Procedure, Interpretation, Applications].
  • Powell, Lunne, Frank (2001)  "Semi-Empirical Design Procedures for axial pile capacity in clays", Proc. XV ICSMGE, Istanbul 5 pp.  (pdf format 0.05 MB)   [New method by BRE-UK, NGI Oslo, LCPC Paris. Based on load tests on 60 driven or jacked piles at 10 clay sites in UK, Norway, France, Denmark. The Authors found that, for the piles in their study, the  DMT-based method outperformed other methods for compression piles. A summary of the method can also be found in TC16 DMT 2001 (see Fig. 36)].
  • Totani, Marchetti, Monaco, Calabrese (2001) "Use of the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT) in Geotechnical Design". IN SITU 2001, Intnl. Conf. On In situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Bali, Indonesia.  (pdf format 0.2 MB)   [Concentrated, 2001-updated, 6pp paper, summarizing main applications]
  • ESSENTIALS (1-page) of the DMT (2001).  A personal view by S. Marchetti  (pdf format)
  • Tice & Knott  (2000) "Cape Hatteras Light Station Relocation" - ASCE Outstanding Civil Engineering achievement for 2000, Geo-Strata Oct. - 1p. summary from GPE-Florida ( pdf format 40 KB) [Good agreement was observed between DMT-predicted and measured settlements at the sandy site under Cape Hatteras Light Station]
  • Schnaid, Ortigao, Mantaras, Cunha, MacGregor (2000)"Analysis of self-boring pressuremeter (SBPM) and Marchetti dilatometer (DMT) tests in granite saprolites", Canad. Geot. Jnl. Vol. 37, 4, Aug 2000, 796-810 Abstract 1p. (pdf format 0.1 MB)   [Compares parameters from SBPM and DMT]
  • Failmezger R.(1998-2000) "  (a) Describes his experience as a second engineer asked to reevaluate the first design  (b) Designer liability for overdesign due non-state-of-the-art settlement predictions in USA    (c) Differences in accuracy of settlements predicted by SPT and DMT" Pers. communication, 2p. (pdf format 10 KB)
  • Failmezger R., Rom D., Ziegler S.B.(1999) "Behavioral Characteristics of Residual Soils. SPT?- A Better Approach to Site Characterization of Residual Soils using other In-Situ Tests", ASCE Geot. Special Pub. No. 92, Edelen, Bill, ed., ASCE, Reston, Virginia,158-175. (pdf format 70 KB)   [5 case-histories comparing settlements  predictions by SPT and DMT on pp.6-7-8. At Route 460 Blacksburg Bypass SPT predicted 100 mm settlements, while DMT predicted 27 mm (confirmed by oedometers)," leading to change in design and large savings". Generally SPT overpredicted settlements (in one case by a factor 10). Also of interest p.10: Settlement Probability Design; and p.15: Diagram comparing MDMT- Moed]
  • Marchetti S.(1999) "On the calibration of the DMT membrane", L'Aquila University, Italy, Internal techn. note, 9 pp. (pdf format 0.2 MB)   [Should be read by operators, especially important when testing in very soft soils]
  • Didaskalou G. (1999) "Comparison Measured vs DMT-predicted Settlements Hyatt Hotel Thessaloniki", Personal Communication (pdf format 70 KB)  [good agreement between measured and DMT-predicted settlements] 
  • Pelnik, Fromme, Gibbons, Failmezger (1999)."Foundation Design Applications of CPTU and DMT Tests in Atlantic Coastal Plain Virginia", Transp. Res. Board, 78th Annual Meeting, Jan., Washington, D.C. Abstract 2 p. (pdf format 10 KB)   [Case histories and Table comparing the relative ability of CPTU and DMT to predict settlements in Virginia sediments]
  • Marchetti S. (1999) " The Flat Dilatometer and its applications to Geotechnical Design ", Lecture notes (90 pp) Intnl Seminar on DMT held at the Japanese Geot. Society, Tokyo, 12 Feb 1999 (pdf format 1.3 MB). Very detailed reference.  Index: DMT equipment, Field equipment, Procedure, Derivation of  parameters, Results, Distortions due to penetration, Comparisons with other tests, Coeff. of Consolidation & Permeability (clay), Settlements, Operative modulus, Detect slip surfaces in slopes, P-y curves for lat. loaded piles, Sand liquefaction, Compaction control, Pavement subgrade control, Subgrade Kh for anchored diaghrams, DMT for FEM.

  • Totani, Marchetti, Monaco, Calabrese (1999) "Impiego della prova dilatometrica nella progettazione geotecnica", XX Convegno Ital. di Geotecnica, Parma, Sept. (In Italian). (pdf format 0.4 MB)
  • Tanaka (1998)."Characterization of Sandy Soils using CPT and DMT", Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geot. Soc.,Vol. 38, 3 , 55-65. (pdf format 1.4 MB)   [Comparisons with parameters determined on high quality frozen sand samples]
  • Totani, Calabrese, Monaco (1998)."In situ determination of Ch by Flat Dilatometer (DMT)", Proc. First Intnl Conf. On Site Characterization ISC '98, Atlanta, Georgia (USA),  883-888. (pdf format 0.7 MB)   [Illustrates  case-histories comparing Ch by DMTA dissipations with Ch backfigured from real works observations. The rate of consolidation predicted by  DMTA was 1 to 3 times slower than real]
  • Milestones on LIQUEFACTION (1998) / RELATIVE DENSITY excerpts from: Tanaka 98 (11pp), Robertson 98 (1pp), Howy and Yu 97 (4pp), Jefferies 95 (2pp), Sladen 89 (10pp), Schmertmann 86 (4pp) (To download, click the Author !) 
  • Totani G., Calabrese M., Marchetti S. and Monaco, P.  (1997). " Use of in situ flat dilatometer (DMT) for ground characterization in the stability analysis of slopes". Proc. XIV Intnl Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Hamburg, Sept., Vol. 1, pp. 607-610. (doc format 0.4 MB)   [About the Kd=2 method to verify the presence of sliding surfaces (active or quiescent) in an overconsolidated clay slope]
  • Marchetti S. (1997). "The Flat Dilatometer : Design Applications". Third Geotechnical Engineering. Conf. Cairo Univ. Jan. 1997, Keynote lecture, 26 pp. (pdf format 0.4 MB)   [Comprehensive in depth detailed treatment]
  • Eurocode 7, (1997) " Geotechnical Design. Part 3 : Design assisted by field tests, "Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT)". (pdf format 0.6 MB)
  • Kamei T. and Iwasaki K. (1995) "Evaluation of undrained shear strength of cohesive soils using a Flat Dilatometer", Soils and Foundations, Vol. 35, 2, 111-116, June. (pdf format 0.6 MB)   [Compares DMT's vs other tests' parameters from numerous distant  geographical areas. Confirms the strong correlation in clays OCR-Kd, virtually similar to the 1980 original correlation]
  • Sawada S. and Sugawara N. (1995) "Evaluation of densification of loose sand by SBP and DMT", Proc. 4th Int. Symp. On Pressuremeter, Sherbrooke, Canada, 17-19 May '95, Balkema, 101-107. (pdf format 0.8 MB)   ["SBP and DMT are valuable tools for estimating soil parameters on sandy soil and effectiveness of the treatment ... SBP is much time-consuming and too much expensive"]
  • Marchetti S. (1994) "An example of use of DMT as an help for evaluating compaction of subgrade and underlying embankment", Internal Technical Note (doc format 0.5 MB)
  • Steiner W. (1994) "Settlement Behaviour of an Avalanche Protection Gallery Founded on Loose Sandy Silt", Settlement '94 ASCE Conf. at Texas A&M, Vol. 1, 207-221 - Abstract & Conclusions 2p. (pdf format 0.2 MB)   [An earthfill on a loose sandy-silt produced settlements substantially higher than anticipated based on conventional soil borings. DMT were then performed. The DMT-predicted settlements agreed well with observed settlements]
  • Massarsch K.R. (1994) "Settlement Analysis of Compacted Granular Fill", Proc. 13 ICSMFE New Delhi, Vol.1, 325-328. (pdf format 0.6 MB)   [Emphasizes the necessity of considering the Sigmah increase due to compaction for settlement calculation. Massarsch notes  "attempts have been made to correlate directly tangent modulus M to Qc, but with limited success (Jamiolkowski et al.1988)". Without consideration of stress history / OCR due to compaction, settlements could easily be overestimated by a factor > 3, as high lateral stresses reduce substantially settlement]
  • Finno R. J. (1993) "Analytical Interpretation of Dilatometer Penetration Through Saturated Cohesive Soils", Geotechnique 43 No.2, 241-254. Abstract 2 p. (pdf format 0.22 MB)   [Finds theoretically (Anisotropic Bounding Space Model) an  OCR-Kd relation practically identical to the 1980 experimentally-established original correlation]
  • Woodward, McIntosh (1993) "Case history : Shallow Foundation Settlement Prediction Using the Marchetti Dilatometer", ASCE Annual Florida Sec. Meeting - Abstract & Conclusions 3p.(pdf format 0.2 MB) or Full Paper (pdf format 2.5 MB)  [Reports good agreement between DMT-predicted and observed settlements at a sandy site. "Use of modulus from DMT permitted considerable savings vs using data from SPT.  SPT, for this project, underpredicted the modulus " producing  non-state-of-the-art settlement predictions]
  • Wong J.T.F., Wong M.F. and Kassim K. (1993) "Comparison between Dilatometer and Other In-Situ and Laboratory Tests in Malaysian Alluvial Clay". 11th Southeast Asian Geot. Conf., 4-8 May 93, Singapore, 275-279. (pdf format 0.5 MB)  
  • Briaud J.L. (1992) - US DOT Federal Highway Administr. 1992. DMT Manual (pdf format 6.7 MB)
  • Geopac (1992) "Comparisons of settlements predicted by PMT and DMT in a silty-sandy soil in Quebec",. Pers. communication (pdf format 90 KB)   [...settlements predicted by PMT and DMT  were very similar, but the time for testing quite different.]
  • Jendeby L. (1992) "Deep Compaction by Vibrowing", Nordic Geotechnical Meeting NGM-92, Vol. 1, 19-24 Abstract 2p. (pdf format 0.1 MB)   [A sandfill compaction case. Mdmt reflected the compaction about twice more sensitively than Qc. The  ratio M/Qc (before-compaction 8-10) increased, after compaction, to ca. 25. The ratio M/Qc possibly usable as a rough indicator of OCR]
  • Fretti, Lopresti, Salgado (1992) Research DMT (1992) (pdf format 500 KB)
  • Campanella, Robertson (1991), Use & Interpretation of a Research DMT (pdf format 1.2 MB)
  • Iwasaki K. et. al (1991) "Applicability of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test to Soft Ground in Japan", GEOCOAST '91, Sept. 1991, Yokohama 1/6, 4 pp. (pdf format 0.4 MB)   [Documents very good agreement between M and Cu by DMT and from high quality samples in Tokyo Bay]
  • Marchetti et al. (1991) P-y curves from DMT data for piles driven in clay. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Deep Foundation Inst. on Piling and Deep Foundations, Vol. 1: 263-272. Stresa. Apr. doc format 1 MB)
  • Reyna, F. & Chameau, J.L. (1991) "Dilatometer Based Liquefaction Potential of Sites in the Imperial Valley". 2nd Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geot. Earthquake Engrg. and Soil Dyn.. St. Louis. May, 7 pp. (pdf format 1.0 MB)  
  • Hayes(1990) "The Marchetti Dilatometer and Compressibility", Southern Ontario Section of the Canad. Geotechn. Society. Seminar on "In Situ Testing and Monitoring". . (2p summary pdf  0.2 MB ;  full paper pdf  0.9 MB)   [Has diagrams with many datapoints showing good agreement between observed and DMT-predicted settlements and moduli]
  • Marchetti & Totani (1989) "Ch Evaluations from DMTA Dissipation Curves", Proc. XI ICSMFE, Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 1: 281-286. (pdf format 0.7 MB)    [Initial paper illustrating the proposed methodology for deriving Ch from Tflex of the DMTA dissipation curves]
  • Powell, J.J.M. & Uglow, I.M. (1988) "The Interpretation of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test in UK Clays". ICE Proc. Penetration Testing in the UK. Univ. of Birmingham, Paper 34: 269-273. July. (pdf format 0.6 MB)   
  • Leonards, G.A. & Frost, J.D. (1988) "Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Granular Soils". ASCE Jnl of Geotechn. Engineering, Vol. 114, No. 7: 791-809. July. Abstract 1 p. (pdf format 0.15 MB)   [Deals with settlements predictions in sand by DMT. Emphasizes that "In granular soils correlations between penetration resistance and soil modulus (Terzaghi & Peck 1967, Schmertmann 1970) seriously overestimate settlements if the deposits has been prestressed". Ranks the usefulness of various in situ tests for predicting settlements in sand]
  • Jamiolkowski, M., Ghionna, V.N., Lancellotta, R., & Pasqualini, E. (1988) "New correlations of penetration tests for design practice"  Proc. ISOPT-1, Orlando, FL, 1 : 263-296. (pdf format 100 KB)    
  • Lutenegger, A.J. (1988) "Current Status of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test"  Invited Lecture. Proc. ISOPT-1, Orlando, FL, Vol. 1: 137-155. Mar. (pdf format 2.2 MB)     [State of the art of DMT in 1988]
  • Robertson, P.K., Davies, M.P. & Campanella, R.G. (1987) "Design of Laterally Loaded Driven Piles Using the Flat Plate Dilatometer". Geotechnical Testing Jnl, Vol. 12, No. 1: 30-38. March (pdf format 1.0 MB)  
  • Robertson et al. (1986). "Seismic CPT to measure in-situ shear wave velocity". ASCE J. GED, 112(8), 791-803  (pdf format 250 Kb)  
  • Marchetti S., Totani G., Campanella R. G., Robertson P. K. & Taddei B. (1986) "The DMT-shc method for piles driven in clay" , Proc. Specialty Conf. In Situ '86, ASCE GED, June. 23-25 Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA:765-779 (pdf format 0.5 MB)  
  • Robertson, P.K.& Campanella, R.G. (1986) "Estimating Liquefaction Potential of Sands Using the Flat Plate Dilatometer".  Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1: 38-40. March (doc format 0.4 MB)  
  • Schmertmann, J.H.et al.(1986) "CPT/DMT Quality Control of Ground Modification at a Power Plant". Proc. In situ '86 ASCE Spec. Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, pp.985-1001. (pdf format 1.1 MB)   [Compaction caused a % increase of Mdmt ca. double than the % increase of Qc,cpt. Schmertmann recommends issuing specifications in terms of modulus rather than (elusive) Dr]
  • Schmertmann, J.H.(1986). Dilatometer to Compute Foundation Settlement". Proc. In Situ '86 ASCE Spec. Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, June 1986. ASCE Geot. Special Publ. No. 6: 303-321. pdf format 750 KB)
  • ASTM SUBCOMMITTEE 18.02,(1986) "J.H. Schmertmann, Chairman, "Suggested Method for Performing the Flat Dilatometer Test". ASTM Geotechn. Testing Journal, Vol. 9, 2, June, 93-101
  • Lacasse & Lunne (1986) "Dilatometer Tests in Sand". Proc. In Situ '86 ASCE Spec. Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA : 686-699. Abstract 1 p. (pdf format 0.1 MB)   [Reports good agreement between  DMT-predicted and measured settlements under a silos at a sandy site]
  • Borden, R.H., Aziz, C.N., Lowder, W.M. & Khosla, N.P. (1985) "Evaluation of Pavement Subgrade Support Characteristics by Dilatometer Test", Proc. 64th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Res. Board. TR Record 1022. June  (pdf format 0.6 MB)
  • Schmertmann J.H. (1983-96) "13 GPE DMT DIGESTS" (Index of Digests)
  • First International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer, Mobile Augers and Research Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (1983)  (pdf format 5.6 MB)  [Papers by Schmertmann, Hayes, Mekechuk, Burges & Campanella]
  • Schmertmann, J.H. (1982) "A Method for Determining the Friction Angle in Sands from the Marchetti Dilatometer Test (DMT)", Proc. 2nd European Symp. on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam, Vol. 2: 853. May (pdf format 0.6 MB)
  • Marchetti, S. (1982) "Detection of liquefiable sand layers by means of quasi static penetration tests".  Proc. 2nd European Symp.on Penetration Testing, Vol. 2: 689-695. Amsterdam, NL. May.  (doc format 0.6 MB)   [Two stage Calibration Chamber tests to evaluate DMT sensitivity to pure prestrain - study aimed at detecting sand liquefiability]
  • D'Antonio, V. (1981) "Soil Investigations and Stability Analysis of Gravity Quaywalls." (in Italian), Consiglio Superiore dei Lavori Pubblici, Giornale del Genio Civile, Roma, No. 1  (pdf format 1.2 MB)
  • Marchetti, S. (1980) "In Situ Tests by Flat Dilatometer". Journal of the Geotechn. Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 106, No. GT3, Proc. Paper 15290, p. 299-321. (pdf format 2.0 MB)   [Original 1980 paper on DMT.  Derivation of the correlations]
  • Marchetti S. (1975) "A New in Situ Test for the Measurement of Horizontal Soil Deformability", Proc. Conf. on "In Situ Measurement of Soil Properties", ASCE Spec. Conf., Raleigh. 2. 255-259.  (pdf format 2 MB)

READING HINTS . For a general overview, see the following comprehensive documents:

Readers unfamiliar with DMT: Totani et al. 2001 Bali, 6 pages      (in Italian: Totani et al. 1999 Parma).

More detailed and extensive treatment : (a) In the form of paper : Marchetti 1997 Cairo and especially  TC16 2001 Bali.   
    (b) In the form of a series of slides: Marchetti 1999 Tokyo, Marchetti 2001 Torino.   (c) In the form of Course Notes - User's Manual: Course Notes 2001 Bali

Papers (of the above list) grouped by topic - all downlodable

Settlements and compressibility: Schmertmann 86, Lacasse 86, Leonards 88, Hayes 90, Iwasaki 91, Geopac 92, Jendeby 92, Woodward 93, Steiner 94, Tanaka 98, Failmezger 98-2000, Failmezger et al. 99, Pelnik et al.99, Schnaid et al 2000, Tice & Knott 2000

PMT and DMT : Schmertmann 87 Digest 9, Geopac 92, Kalteziotis 91, Lutenegger 88 and 90, Wong 93, Sawada 95, Ortigao 96, Schnaid 2000

Ch and K by DMT: Robertson 88, Schmertmann 88, Marchetti 89, Totani 98

Liquefaction: Marchetti 82, Robertson 86 , Reyna 91, Tanaka 98, Milestones on liquefaction 98, TC16 2001

For personal or educational non-commercial use only.

The documents *.pdf, require Acrobat Reader, freely downloadable at : http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html

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