Flat Dilatometer (DMT) downloadable papers
Prof. S. Marchetti
Tel +39 06 303.60.107
This is NOT a commercial website.
For this kind of info:link
3rd International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer
Rome - June 14th-16th 2015
Abstract: A dilatometer test consists of pushing a flat blade located at the end of a series of rods. Once at the testing depth, a circular steel membrane located on one side of the blade is expanded horizontally into the soil. The pressure is recorded at specific moments during the test. The blade is then advanced to the next test depth.
The main application of the DMT is to estimate quickly and accurately Operative Moduli and Settlements of Foundations. Settlements are necessary to the designer e.g. to choose between a shallow foundation or a piled foundation.
Other design applications include: compaction control, detecting slip surfaces in slopes, liquefiability, laterally loaded piles and other geotechnical problems using the soil parameters for which the instrument provides estimates.
TOWARDS AN INSITU MULTIPARAMETER APPROACH
When CPT and DMT are executed in sand, three independent significant parameters are obtained : Qcn, KD, ED1 (ED1 = ED / sigma'vo), each one depending on Strength, Stiffness, Stress History. Since three unknowns require three equations, Qcn, KD, ED1 are all needed to solve for Strength, Stiffness, Stress History. Improved predictions are therefore expectable if one-to-one correlations are replaced by three-to-one correlations, or at least by two-to-one correlations. Example of existing three-to-one correlations : OCR = f (ED, KD, Qcn) (Jnl Asce Jan 2014). Example of two-to-one correlations : MDMT = f (ED, KD). For example the correlation relative density DR- Qcn strongly depends on the sand, while the correlation DR - KD strongly depends on OCR (KD increases with both DR and Stress History). It is expectable that a two-to-one correlation DR = f (Qcn, KD) will be better than the one-to-one correlations DR = f (Qcn) or DR = f (KD). Future research will possibly develop multiparameter correlations to replace current one-to-one correlations.
A multi parameter CPT-SPT was not possible because both tests provide strength, and even more because SPT is a crude and unreliable test. With the advent of collateral significant independent in situ information - besides Qcn - a multi parameter approach appears a logical development.
Dubai DFIMEC 2014 "Latest developments on in situ testing, pile-raft foundations and FEM". Lecture by S. Marchetti on DMT.
Egypt Tanta University. Emerging Technologies in Field Testing and Soil Characterization. Lecture by Dr. Buselli on DMT - SDMT.
Darmstadt Germany. Seminar "All aspects relating to Liquefaction" Technical University, Keynote Lecture by S. Marchetti: "Estimating Liquefaction Resistance taking into account Stress History by DMT".
Hamilton-Ontario CANADA. Workshop on Flat Dilatometer and Seismic Dilatometer by Marchetti, Crapps, Failmezger.
Bali Indonesia ICOLD Conf. BALI 2014 - Lecture by Dr. Buselli on DMT - SDMT.
St. Petersburg Russia. Workshop on Flat Dilatometer & Seismic Dilatometer by D. Marchetti ay St. Petersburg Mining University.
Australia Brisbane, Newcastle, Adelaide, Melbourne. Workshops on DMT - SDMT by S. Marchetti.
Aalborg Denmark. Workshop on Seismic Dilatometer at University of Aalborg, Lecture by D. Marchetti: "Seismic Dilatometer: Description, Results and Applications" .
Goiania Brazil XII Brazilian Congress on Soil Mechanics & Geot. Engineering, COBRAMSEG 2014. Short Course on DMT - SDMT by D. Marchetti and Dr. Buselli.
Poznan POLAND 5th International Conference on CPT - DMT. Lectures by D. Marchetti, S. Marchetti, P. Monaco.
Pisa Workshop on in Situ Testing at Pisa University, Lecture by S. Marchetti: "Estimating Liquefaction Resistance taking into account Stress History by DMT".
Jakarta PIT-XVIII Geot. Eng. for Future Infrastructure Development in Indonesia. Lecture by Dr. Buselli "DMT and SDMT for Settlement Prediction of Shallow Foundations and Liquefability Evaluation".
Toronto Canada. Presentation on DMT/ SDMT by G. Sedran. Dinner-lecture Canadian Geotechnical Society - Toronto Branch.
Bologna Italy. One day Seminar on "In situ investigations"Viale della Fiera Sala BCD della Regione Emilia-Romagna. Sara Amoroso : DMT - SDMT Description of equipment. Results.
Concepcion Chile. Presentation on DMT - SDMT by D. Marchetti at "Universidad Catolica De La Santisima Concepcion" Auditorium.
Santiago Chile. Presentation on DMT - SDMT by D. Marchetti at " Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile", Santiago Campus San Joaquín Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860 Dpto. De Ingeniería Estructural y Geotécnica Sala DIEG, from 13:00 to 14:00.
Lima Peru Presentation on DMT - SDMT by D. Marchetti at "Colegio De Ingenieros Del Peru" Av. Arequipa Nº 4947 Miraflores, Lima.
Moscow Russian Geotechnical Conference. Presentation on DMT - SDMT on 3 Dec by S. Marchetti.
Kakinada Indian Geotechnical Conference IGC-2014. Presentation on DMT - SDMT at Plenary Session 18 Dec by S. Marchetti.
Cesano, Rome Italy Short Course on DMT/SDMT with Field Demonstration.
Santa Cruz Bolivia. Geotechnical Conference. Presentation on DMT - SDMT by S. Marchetti.
Rome Italy 3rd International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer DMT'15, www.dmt15.com. Under the auspices of Techn. Committee TC-102 of ISSMGE, of the Italian Geot. Society and L'Aquila University. Parco dei Principi.
Using the DMT:
The last decades have seen a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing. In situ tests are fast, economical, reproducible, provide many data, have a small scatter, cost much less than sampling and testing. CPT and DMT are today considered practical and fast in situ tests for everyday design (see e.g. State of the Art at the last Geotechnical World Conference 2009).
CPT is faster than DMT, hence, in simple jobs, it may be preferable and sufficient. However in important jobs, where accurate settlement predictions are needed, CPT may be not sufficient, because of the well known weakness of CPT to predict accurately settlements (e.g. Robertson 1986, Leonards 1988, Jamiolkowski 1988, Schnaid 2009). The slight additional cost of DMT has been found by many designers a fraction of the savings produced by a better designed foundation. DMT also provides better information on Stress History, which is important for settlements prediction and liquefaction evaluations. When used for monitoring compaction, the DMT's has been found to be twice as sensitive as CPT (Schmertmann 1986). The DMT is also considerably more sensitive to horizontal stresses. Due to the flat shape, arching is negligible, opposite to axi-symmetric probes, where arching obscures the horizontal stress.
Distinctive features of DMT:
The higher ability of DMT to predict settlements is due to:
1. The blade distorts the soil substantially less than conical tips
2. The DMT executes a mini-load test, hence obtains a modulus. A modulus to modulus correlation is closer than a modulus to a penetration resistance, which is a rupture parameter
3. DMT is a genuine two-parameter test, one of which, KD, closely related to Stress History, a parameter having a substantial influence on Settlements and Resistance to Liquefaction.
Arching. The penetration of cylindrical probes creates a stiff soil ring surrounding the probe (Robertson & Hughes 1995). Such obstacle/parasitic screen reduces the sensitivity to sigma-h (Huang 1994). The arching effect is nearly nonexisting with the DMT flat blade, resulting in a higher sensitivity to sigma-h.
DMT and SDMT:
Cape Kennedy Space Center
Rome Metro underground
San Andreas Fault area
Nearshore Investigations by DMT
Score table of various in-situ test
DMT automatic acquisition
Editorial July 2010
Direct-push in situ tests : will they be the basis of our investigations ? Can direct-push replace lab? Notions emerged at CPT'10. Differences CPT - DMT.
Sand liquefaction based on DMT
A recent KD-CRR correlation was obtained by Robertson in 2012. by replacing Qcn with 25 KD in the Robertson and Wride (1998) Qcn - CRR correlation. In 2006 Idriss and Boulanger (2006) updated the Robertson and Wride 1998 correlation - making it somewhat more conservative. By repeating the above mentioned substitution, i.e. replacing Qcn with 25 KD in the new consensus Idriss and Boulanger Qcn - CRR correlation, the following combination is obtained:
CRR = exp [(Qcn/540) + (Qcn/67)2 - (Qcn/80)3 + (Qcn/114)4 - 3] with Qcn =25 KD
The above equation is the today (2014) recommended correlation for predicting CRR based on KD.
(downloadable – see links below)
TC16 DMT Report by the ISSMGE (2001): a comprehensive document incorporating all the most important information
DMT Course Notes (2001) (Marchetti and Monaco): usable as a "User's manual" by DMT technicians. Procedure. Maintenance. Quality checks.
Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT):
Marchetti et al. (2008) Schmertmann Volume
Monaco et al. (2009) "Interrelationship ..", IS-Tokyo2009
Students: Schnaid's textbook "In Situ Testing" - Chapter 6 on DMT
Manual DMT Briaud (1992) - US DOT Federal Highway Admin.
Content of 1-day Course on DMT and Seismic DMT (SDMT)
- Hardware, Working Principle, Procedure, Standards, Maintenance, Field equipment for running the test on land and offshore, testable soils.
- Using the results in the profession : Soil parameters, Settlements of shallow foundations and assessment of their accuracy by comparisons between observed and DMT-predicted settlements, Kh behind diaphragm walls from MDMT, Moduli before-after compaction, Moduli in roads subgrade, Laterally loaded piles, Detecting slip surfaces in slopes.
Seismic Dilatometer. Measurement of the shear wave velocity Vs, Combining the "low-strain" shear modulus Go with the "working strain" modulus Mdmt - both provided by SDMT - to help selecting the G-Gamma decay curves.
Liquefaction resistance evaluated by SDMT in two independent ways : from Vs and from KD.. Sensitivity of KD to aging, Importance of accounting for aging.
- Data reduction, presentation of results, diagrams, seismograms, Auto-Report generation.
- Troubleshooting, Quality controls, FAQ. Case-histories presented by invited experts.
- Participants will have the opportunity of executing a few measurements.
2nd International Conference on the Flat Dilatometer - Washington, D.C. April 2006
Index of the Conference papers
Proceedings and full Video of the Conference are available from R. Failmezger
Special Lectures at the Conference:
- John Schmertmann “How the Dilatometer moved the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse”
- Michele Jamiolkowski “Zelazny Most Tailings Pond: Site Characterization”
- Michele Maugeri “Liquefaction Potential Evaluation by SDMT”
- Silvano Marchetti “Summary of DMT Interpretation and Applications”
- Diego Marchetti “Software for handling combinedly Dilatometer and Seismic data”
- Failmezger R. (2006) "Thank you for attending the DMT 2006 Conference" (message)
Marchetti S. (2014). "The seismic dilatometer for in situ soil investigations". Proc. Indian Geot. Conf. Dec. 2014, Kakinada, India
(pdf format 1.1 MB) (in RUSSIAN ?????? ????????? 1.7 MB)
[an updated summary paper on DMT - SDMT]
Schnaid F. (2009). Book "In Situ Testing in Geomechanics - the main tests". Taylor & Francis Group, London: 327 p. Chapter 6 (16 pp). Flat Dilatometer testing (DMT)
(pdf format 1.4 MB) [Excerpt from prof. Schnaid's textbook, an excellent combination of modern research with knowledge useful to practicing engineers. The textbook is recommended to students and designers]
Failmezger R. & Bullock P. (2011) "Owner Involvement - Chosing Risk Factors for Shallow Foundations", Proc. GeoRisk 2011 Atlanta pp 1098-1108 ASCE
(full paper 200 KB) (2 pages 160 KB) [Focuses on settlement prediction methods. Importance of accurately predicting settlements to avoid owner paying an excessive price for poor design]
Marchetti S. (2011) Discussion of "CPT-DMTCorrelations" by Robertson P.K., Jnl GGE Apr.,137,4.
(pdf format 300 KB) [Analyses similarities-diversities CPT-DMT]
Kung G. T. & Tsai P. (2010) "Examination of existing DMT-based liquefaction evaluation methods by side-by-side DMT and CPT tests", 5th Intern. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics and Symposium in Honor of Professor I.M. Idriss
(pdf format 1.5 MB)
Marchetti S. (2010) "Sensitivity of CPT and DMT to stress history and aging in sands for liquefaction assessment", Proc. CPT 2010 Int.nl Symposium Huntington Beach, California
(Abstract & Conclusions doc 60 kB)
(Paper 8 pp 150 k)
Cruz N. (2010) "Excerpts from PhD Thesis"",
(pdf format 0.25 MB)
Tsai P., Lee D., Kung G.T. & Juang C.H. (2009) "Simplified DMT-based methods for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils", Engineering Geology 103,13-22
(pdf format 2.2 MB)
Monaco et al. (2009) "Interrelationship between Small Strain Modulus Go and Operative Modulus". IS-Tokyo2009. International Conference on Performance-Based Design in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. June 2009
(pdf format 0.5 MB)
[Data from a wide variety of sites worldwide suggest:
(1) It is fallacious to use Su or Nspt -for seisimc classification- as a substitute for Vs;
(2) Estimating the "operative modulus" as Go divided by a constant maybe highly uncertain]
Robertson P.K. (2009). "CPT-DMT Correlations". Jnl ASCE GGE, 135,11 10pp
(pdf format 0.9 MB)
Totani et al. (2009) "Vs measurements by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) in non-penetrable soils" Proc. 17th ICSMGE Alexandria Egypt. Oct. 2009
(pdf format 1.4 MB)
[May be useful to obtain Vs profiles in gravel]
List (2009 March) "Some Seismic Dilatometer Test Sites"
(pdf format 16 KB)
Protezione Civile - Gruppo di Lavoro (2008) "Indirizzi e criteri per la microzonazione sismica" Prova DMT pp. 391-397, (doc format 0.3 MB), Prova SDMT pp. 397-405
(doc format 2.7 MB)
Consiglio Superiore dei Lavori Pubblici (2008) "Istruzioni per l'applicazione Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni". Bozza 7.3.09
(pdf format 55 KB)
Marchetti et al. (2008) "In Situ Tests by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT)", ASCE Geot. Special Publication GSP No. 170 Schmertmann Volume
(doc format 1.7 MB)
Failmezger R.A. & Bullock P.J. (2008). Which in-situ test should I use? -- a designer's guide. Ohio River Valley Soils Seminar 39, Cincinnati, Ohio
(pdf format 1.23 MB)
Marchetti et al. (2008) "Vs evaluation from DMT data"
Monaco & Marchetti (2007) "Evaluating Liquefaction Potential by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) accounting for Aging" Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on Earthquake Geotech. Eng. Thessaloniki, June 2007
(pdf format 0.6 MB)
Monaco & Schmertmann (2007) Discussion of "Accounting for Soil Aging When Assessing Liquefaction Potential" by Leon, E. et al. J. Geotech. Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE 133(9), 1177
(pdf format 0.3 MB)
Monaco et al (2007) "DMT and SDMT. Design Applications and Recent Developments"
Australia New Zealand Conf. Geomechanics
Monaco & Marchetti (2007) "Evaluating Liquefaction Potential by Seismic Dilatometer (SDMT) accounting for Aging"
Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on Earthquake Geotech. Eng. Thessaloniki, June 2007
Monaco & Schmertmann (2007) Discussion of "Accounting for Soil Aging When Assessing Liquefaction Potential" by Leon, E. et al. J. Geotech. Geoenv. Engrg., ASCE 133(9), 1177
(pdf format 0.3 MB)
Marchetti D. et al. (2007) "Risultato di prove in sito mediante Dilatometro Sismico (SDMT)" Proc. 23rd Italian Conf SMGE, Padova, May 2007 (in italian)
(doc format 3.7 MB)
Huang (2006) Bottom mud reservoir sediment by DMT (pdf format 700 KB)
Maugeri & Monaco(2006) "Liquefaction Potential Evaluation by SDMT" Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 295-305 Apr (doc format)
Monaco, Totani, Calabrese (2006) "DMT-predicted vs. observed settlements: a review of the available experience"
Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 244-252
Foti, Lancellotta, Marchetti, Monaco, Totani (2006) "Interpretation of SDMT tests in a transversely isotropic medium", Proc. Second Intnl Conf. on the Flat Dilatometer, Washington D.C., p. 275-280
Monaco et al. (2005) "Sand liquefiability assessment by Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT)", Proc. 16th ICSMGE – Osaka
Gil Megia (2004) Curso Tecnico de Perforación - DMT spanish (pdf format 500 KB)
Monaco & Marchetti (2004)"Evaluation of the coefficient of subgrade reaction for design of
multi-propped diaphragm walls from DMT moduli", Proc. Intnl Site Characterization ISC’2 – Porto Portugal
SDMT - Seismic Dilatometer (2004), (SDMT
Information 1.1 MB)
Dmt Dissip (Dec 2002), Windows program for DMT Dissipations.
Dmt Elab (July 2002), Windows program for DMT. Dmt Elab also generates files *.uni used for settlements.
(Sample Diagrams ,
Mayne, Martin, Schneider (1999) "Small- and Large-Strain Soil Properties from Seismic Flat Dilatometer Tests", Proc. Pre-failure Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials, Jamiolkowski et al. editors, Torino. (pdf format 1 MB) [SDMT adds to the "standard" DMT the capability of determining Go. "E" and Go are then used combinedly to identify the modulus degradation curve]
Devincenzi (2002) "El ensayo dilatométrico de Marchetti". Geotecnia 2002 (in Espanol) (pdf format 0.8 MB)
Plaxis parameters (2002) "Hard Soil Model :
E50,ref can be estimated from oedometer data (M)" (pdf format 0.1
ASTM D6635-01 (2002) "Standard Test Method for Performing the Flat Plate Dilatometer". Book of Standards Vol. 04.09
Jamiolkowsky et al. (2001) "Evaluation of Relative Density and Shear Strength of Sands from CPT and DMT", ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication n. 119:201-238 (pdf format 1.4 MB)
Youd T. L.& Idriss I. M. (2001) "Liquefaction Resistance of Soils : Summary Report from the 1996 and 1998 NCEER Workshops", ASCE Jnl. GGE, 127, 4, 297-313 (pdf format 0.3 MB)
Marchetti S. (2001) "The Flat dilatometer", 18th CGT - Conferenze Geotecnica Torino, 56 pp. (pdf format 0.8 MB or
doc format 1.1 MB) [Slides, in English]
DMT Course Notes (2001) by Marchetti and Monaco, Bali Insitu 2001, 77 pp.
(pdf format or
doc format 4 MB). [Detailed figures on equipment, procedure, maintenance, tolerances and quality checks. A kind of "User's Manual", thought for technicians actually performing DMT]
TC16 (2001) "The DMT in Soil Investigations", A Report by the ISSMGE Committee TC16, 41 pp. (pdf format or
doc format 1 MB) ; (click
here for the Italian version)
[A comprehensive official reference covering in detail Field operations, Procedure, Interpretation, Applications].
Powell, Lunne, Frank (2001) "Semi-Empirical Design Procedures for axial pile capacity in clays", Proc. XV ICSMGE, Istanbul 5 pp. (pdf format 0.05 MB) [New method by BRE-UK, NGI Oslo, LCPC Paris. Based on load tests on 60 driven or jacked piles at 10 clay sites in UK, Norway, France, Denmark. The Authors found that, for the piles in their study, the DMT-based method
outperformed other methods for compression piles. A summary of the method can also be found in TC16 DMT 2001 (see Fig. 36)].
Totani, Marchetti, Monaco, Calabrese (2001)
"Use of the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT) in Geotechnical Design". IN SITU
2001, Intnl. Conf. On In situ Measurement of Soil Properties, Bali, Indonesia. (pdf format 0.2 MB) [Concentrated, 2001-updated, 6pp paper, summarizing main
ESSENTIALS (1-page) of the DMT (2001). A personal view by S. Marchetti
Tice & Knott (2000) "Cape Hatteras Light Station Relocation" - ASCE Outstanding Civil Engineering achievement for 2000, Geo-Strata Oct. - 1p. summary from GPE-Florida (
pdf format 40 KB) [Good agreement was observed between DMT-predicted and measured settlements at the sandy site under Cape Hatteras Light Station]
Schnaid, Ortigao, Mantaras, Cunha, MacGregor (2000)"Analysis of self-boring pressuremeter (SBPM) and Marchetti dilatometer (DMT) tests in granite saprolites", Canad. Geot. Jnl. Vol. 37, 4, Aug 2000, 796-810 Abstract 1p.
(pdf format 0.1 MB) [Compares parameters from SBPM and DMT]
Failmezger R.(1998-2000) " (a)
Describes his experience as a second engineer asked to reevaluate the first design
(b) Designer liability for overdesign due non-state-of-the-art settlement predictions in
USA (c) Differences in accuracy of settlements predicted by SPT and DMT"
Pers. communication, 2p. (pdf format
Failmezger R., Rom D., Ziegler S.B.(1999) "Behavioral Characteristics of Residual Soils. SPT?- A Better Approach to Site Characterization of Residual Soils using other In-Situ Tests", ASCE Geot. Special Pub. No. 92,
Edelen, Bill, ed., ASCE, Reston, Virginia,158-175. (pdf format 70 KB) [5 case-histories comparing settlements predictions by SPT and DMT on pp.6-7-8. At Route 460 Blacksburg Bypass SPT predicted 100 mm settlements, while DMT predicted 27 mm (confirmed by oedometers)," leading to change in design and large savings". Generally SPT overpredicted settlements (in one case by a factor 10).
Also of interest p.10: Settlement Probability Design; and p.15: Diagram comparing MDMT- Moed]
Marchetti S.(1999) "On the calibration of
the DMT membrane", L'Aquila University, Italy, Internal techn. note, 9 pp. (pdf format 0.2 MB)
[Should be read by operators, especially important when testing in very soft
Didaskalou G. (1999) "Comparison Measured vs
DMT-predicted Settlements Hyatt Hotel Thessaloniki", Personal
format 70 KB) [good agreement between measured and DMT-predicted
Pelnik, Fromme, Gibbons, Failmezger (1999)."Foundation
Design Applications of CPTU and DMT Tests in Atlantic Coastal Plain Virginia",
Transp. Res. Board, 78th Annual Meeting, Jan., Washington, D.C. Abstract 2 p. (pdf format 10 KB)
[Case histories and Table comparing the relative ability of CPTU
and DMT to predict settlements in Virginia sediments]
Marchetti S. (1999)
" The Flat Dilatometer and its applications to
Geotechnical Design ", Lecture notes (90 pp) Intnl Seminar on DMT held at
the Japanese Geot. Society, Tokyo, 12 Feb 1999 (pdf format 1.3 MB). Very detailed
reference. Index: DMT equipment, Field
equipment, Procedure, Derivation of parameters, Results, Distortions due to
penetration, Comparisons with other tests, Coeff. of Consolidation & Permeability
(clay), Settlements, Operative modulus, Detect slip surfaces in
slopes, P-y curves
for lat. loaded piles, Sand liquefaction, Compaction control, Pavement subgrade control,
Subgrade Kh for anchored diaghrams, DMT for FEM.
Totani, Marchetti, Monaco, Calabrese (1999)
"Impiego della prova dilatometrica nella progettazione geotecnica", XX
Convegno Ital. di Geotecnica, Parma, Sept. (In Italian). (pdf format 0.4 MB)
Tanaka (1998)."Characterization of Sandy
Soils using CPT and DMT", Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geot. Soc.,Vol. 38, 3 ,
55-65. (pdf format 1.4 MB)
[Comparisons with parameters determined on high quality frozen sand
Totani, Calabrese, Monaco (1998)."In situ
determination of Ch by Flat Dilatometer (DMT)", Proc. First Intnl Conf. On Site
Characterization ISC '98, Atlanta, Georgia (USA), 883-888. (pdf format 0.7 MB)
[Illustrates case-histories comparing Ch by DMTA dissipations
with Ch backfigured from real works observations. The rate of consolidation predicted
by DMTA was 1 to 3 times slower than real]
Milestones on LIQUEFACTION (1998) / RELATIVE DENSITY
excerpts from: Tanaka 98 (11pp),
Robertson 98 (1pp),
Howy and Yu 97 (4pp),
Jefferies 95 (2pp), Sladen
89 (10pp), Schmertmann 86
(4pp) (To download, click the Author !)
Totani G., Calabrese M., Marchetti S. and Monaco, P.
(1997). " Use of in situ flat dilatometer (DMT) for ground characterization
in the stability analysis of slopes". Proc. XIV Intnl Conf. on Soil Mechanics and
Foundation Engineering, Hamburg, Sept., Vol. 1, pp. 607-610. (doc format 0.4 MB) [About the KD=2 method to verify the presence of sliding surfaces
(active or quiescent) in an overconsolidated clay slope]
Marchetti S. (1997). "The Flat
Dilatometer : Design Applications". Third Geotechnical Engineering.
Conf. Cairo Univ. Jan. 1997, Keynote lecture, 26 pp. (pdf format
0.4 MB) [Comprehensive in depth detailed treatment]
Eurocode 7, (1997) " Geotechnical Design.
Part 3 : Design assisted by field tests, "Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT)". (pdf format 0.6 MB)
Kamei T. and Iwasaki K. (1995) "Evaluation
of undrained shear strength of cohesive soils using a Flat Dilatometer", Soils
and Foundations, Vol. 35, 2, 111-116, June. (pdf
format 0.6 MB) [Compares DMT's vs other tests'
parameters from numerous distant geographical areas. Confirms the strong correlation
in clays OCR-KD, virtually similar to the 1980 original correlation]
Sawada S. and Sugawara N. (1995) "Evaluation
of densification of loose sand by SBP and DMT", Proc. 4th Int. Symp. On
Pressuremeter, Sherbrooke, Canada, 17-19 May '95, Balkema, 101-107. (pdf format 0.8 MB)
["SBP and DMT are valuable tools for estimating soil parameters on sandy soil and
effectiveness of the treatment ... SBP is much time-consuming and too much expensive"]
Marchetti S. (1994) "An example of use of DMT as an help for evaluating compaction of subgrade and underlying embankment", Internal Technical Note (doc format 0.5 MB)
Steiner W. (1994) "Settlement Behaviour
of an Avalanche Protection Gallery Founded on Loose Sandy Silt", Settlement '94
ASCE Conf. at Texas A&M, Vol. 1, 207-221 - Abstract & Conclusions 2p. (pdf format 0.2 MB)
[An earthfill on a loose sandy-silt produced settlements substantially higher than
anticipated based on conventional soil borings. DMT were then performed. The DMT-predicted
settlements agreed well with observed settlements]
Massarsch K.R. (1994) "Settlement
Analysis of Compacted Granular Fill", Proc. 13 ICSMFE New Delhi, Vol.1, 325-328.
(pdf format 0.6 MB)
[Emphasizes the necessity of considering the Sigmah increase due to compaction for
settlement calculation. Massarsch notes "attempts have been made to
correlate directly tangent modulus M to Qc, but with limited success (Jamiolkowski et
al.1988)". Without consideration of stress history / OCR due to
settlements could easily be overestimated by a factor > 3, as high lateral stresses
reduce substantially settlement]
Finno R. J. (1993) "Analytical
Interpretation of Dilatometer Penetration Through Saturated Cohesive Soils",
Geotechnique 43 No.2, 241-254. Abstract 2 p. (pdf
format 0.22 MB) [Finds theoretically (Anisotropic
Bounding Space Model) an OCR-KD relation practically identical to the 1980
experimentally-established original correlation]
Woodward, McIntosh (1993) "Case history :
Shallow Foundation Settlement Prediction Using the Marchetti Dilatometer", ASCE
Annual Florida Sec. Meeting - Abstract & Conclusions 3p.(pdf format 0.2 MB) or
Full Paper (pdf format
[Reports good agreement between DMT-predicted and observed settlements at a sandy site.
"Use of modulus from DMT permitted considerable savings vs using data from
SPT. SPT, for this project, underpredicted the modulus " producing
non-state-of-the-art settlement predictions]
Wong J.T.F., Wong M.F. and Kassim K. (1993)
"Comparison between Dilatometer and Other In-Situ and Laboratory Tests in
Malaysian Alluvial Clay". 11th Southeast Asian Geot. Conf., 4-8 May 93,
Singapore, 275-279. (pdf format 0.5
Briaud J.L. (1992) - US DOT Federal Highway Administr. 1992. DMT Manual (pdf format 6.7 MB)
Geopac (1992) "Comparisons of settlements
predicted by PMT and DMT in a silty-sandy soil in Quebec",. Pers. communication (pdf format 90 KB)
[...settlements predicted by PMT and DMT were very similar, but the time for
testing quite different.]
Jendeby L. (1992) "Deep Compaction by
Vibrowing", Nordic Geotechnical Meeting NGM-92, Vol. 1, 19-24 Abstract 2p. (pdf format 0.1 MB)
[A sandfill compaction case. Mdmt reflected the compaction about twice more sensitively
than Qc. The ratio M/Qc (before-compaction 8-10) increased, after
compaction, to ca.
25. The ratio M/Qc possibly usable as a rough indicator of OCR]
Fretti, Lopresti, Salgado (1992) Research DMT (1992) (pdf format 500 KB)
Campanella, Robertson (1991), Use & Interpretation of a Research DMT (pdf format 1.2 MB)
Iwasaki K. et. al (1991) "Applicability
of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test to Soft Ground in Japan", GEOCOAST '91,
1991, Yokohama 1/6, 4 pp. (pdf format
0.4 MB) [Documents very good agreement between M and Cu by
DMT and from high quality samples in Tokyo Bay]
Marchetti et al. (1991) P-y curves from DMT data for piles driven in clay. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Deep Foundation Inst. on Piling and Deep Foundations, Vol. 1: 263-272. Stresa. Apr.
doc format 1 MB)
Reyna, F. & Chameau, J.L. (1991) "Dilatometer
Based Liquefaction Potential of Sites in the Imperial Valley". 2nd Int.
Recent Advances in Geot. Earthquake Engrg. and Soil Dyn.. St. Louis. May, 7 pp. (pdf format 1.0 MB)
Hayes(1990) "The Marchetti Dilatometer
and Compressibility", Southern Ontario Section of the Canad. Geotechn. Society.
Seminar on "In Situ Testing and Monitoring". . (2p
summary pdf 0.2 MB ; full
paper pdf 0.9 MB) [Has diagrams with many datapoints showing good agreement between
observed and DMT-predicted settlements and moduli]
"Modulus of Sands from CPT's and DMT's".
XII ICSMFE 1989 Rio 1989 vol. 1, 165-170 (pdf format 0.5 MB)
Marchetti & Totani (1989) "Ch
Evaluations from DMTA Dissipation Curves", Proc. XI ICSMFE, Rio de Janeiro, Vol.
1: 281-286. (pdf format 0.7
MB) [Initial paper illustrating the proposed
methodology for deriving Ch from Tflex of the DMTA dissipation curves]
Powell, J.J.M. & Uglow, I.M. (1988) "The
Interpretation of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test in UK Clays". ICE Proc.
Penetration Testing in the UK. Univ. of Birmingham, Paper 34: 269-273. July. (pdf format 0.6 MB)
Leonards, G.A. & Frost, J.D. (1988) "Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Granular Soils". ASCE Jnl of Geotechn. Engineering,
Vol. 114, No. 7: 791-809. July. Abstract 1 p. (pdf format 0.15 MB) [Deals with settlements
predictions in sand by DMT. Emphasizes that "In granular soils correlations between penetration resistance and soil modulus (Terzaghi & Peck 1967, Schmertmann
1970) seriously overestimate settlements if the deposits has been prestressed".
Ranks the usefulness of various in situ tests for predicting settlements in sand]
Jamiolkowski, M., Ghionna, V.N., Lancellotta, R., & Pasqualini, E. (1988) "New correlations of penetration tests for design practice" Proc. ISOPT-1, Orlando, FL, 1 : 263-296. (pdf format 100 KB)
Lutenegger, A.J. (1988) "Current Status
of the Marchetti Dilatometer Test" Invited Lecture. Proc. ISOPT-1,
Orlando, FL, Vol. 1: 137-155. Mar. (pdf format 2.2 MB) [State of the art of DMT in 1988]
Robertson, P.K., Davies, M.P. & Campanella, R.G. (1987)
"Design of Laterally Loaded Driven Piles Using the Flat Plate Dilatometer".
Geotechnical Testing Jnl, Vol. 12, No. 1: 30-38. March (pdf format 1.0 MB)
Robertson et al. (1986). "Seismic CPT to measure in-situ shear wave velocity". ASCE J. GED, 112(8), 791-803
(pdf format 250 Kb)
Marchetti S., Totani G., Campanella R. G., Robertson P. K. & Taddei B. (1986) "The DMT-shc method for piles driven in clay" ,
Proc. Specialty Conf. In Situ '86, ASCE GED, June. 23-25 Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA:765-779 (pdf format 0.5 MB)
Robertson, P.K.& Campanella, R.G. (1986) "Estimating
Liquefaction Potential of Sands Using the Flat Plate Dilatometer".
Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 9, No. 1: 38-40. March (doc
format 0.4 MB)
Schmertmann, J.H.et al.(1986) "CPT/DMT Quality Control of
Ground Modification at a Power Plant". Proc. In situ '86 ASCE Spec.
Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, pp.985-1001. (pdf
format 1.1 MB) [Compaction caused a % increase of
Mdmt ca. double than the % increase of Qc,cpt. Schmertmann recommends issuing
specifications in terms of modulus rather than (elusive) Dr]
Schmertmann, J.H.(1986). "Dilatometer to Compute Foundation Settlement". Proc. In Situ '86 ASCE Spec. Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, June 1986. ASCE Geot. Special Publ. No. 6: 303-321.
(pdf format full paper: 800 KB) (pdf format 2pp: 200 KB)
Schmertmann, J.H.(1986). "CPT/DMT Quality Control of Ground Modification at a Power Plant". Proc. In Situ '86 GT Div., ASCE, June 23-25, 1986 Blacksburg, VA.
(pdf format 730 KB)
ASTM SUBCOMMITTEE 18.02,(1986) "J.H.
Schmertmann, Chairman, "Suggested Method for Performing the Flat Dilatometer Test". ASTM
Geotechn. Testing Journal, Vol. 9, 2, June, 93-101
Lacasse & Lunne (1986) "Dilatometer Tests in
Sand". Proc. In Situ '86 ASCE Spec. Conf. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA : 686-699.
Abstract 1 p. (pdf format 0.1
MB) [Reports good agreement between DMT-predicted and
measured settlements under a silos at a sandy site]
Borden, R.H., Aziz, C.N., Lowder, W.M. & Khosla, N.P. (1985) "Evaluation of Pavement Subgrade Support Characteristics by Dilatometer Test", Proc. 64th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Res. Board. TR Record 1022. June (pdf format 0.6 MB)
Schmertmann J.H. (1983-96) "13 GPE DMT DIGESTS" (Index of Digests)
Conference on the Flat Dilatometer, Mobile Augers and Research Ltd.,
Edmonton, Alberta (1983) (pdf
format 5.6 MB) [Papers by Schmertmann, Hayes,
Mekechuk, Burges & Campanella]
Schmertmann, J.H. (1982) "A Method for Determining the Friction Angle in Sands from the Marchetti Dilatometer Test (DMT)", Proc. 2nd European Symp. on Penetration Testing, Amsterdam, Vol. 2: 853. May (pdf format 0.6 MB)
Marchetti, S. (1982) "Detection of liquefiable sand layers
by means of quasi static penetration tests". Proc. 2nd European
Penetration Testing, Vol. 2: 689-695. Amsterdam, NL. May. (doc format 0.6 MB)
[Two stage Calibration Chamber tests to evaluate DMT
sensitivity to pure prestrain - study aimed at detecting sand liquefiability]
D'Antonio, V. (1981) "Soil Investigations and Stability Analysis of Gravity Quaywalls." (in Italian), Consiglio Superiore dei Lavori Pubblici, Giornale del Genio Civile, Roma, No. 1 (pdf format 1.2 MB)
Marchetti, S. (1980) "In Situ Tests by Flat
Dilatometer". Journal of the Geotechn. Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 106, No. GT3,
Proc. Paper 15290, p. 299-321. (pdf format
2.0 MB) [Original 1980 paper on DMT. Derivation of
Marchetti S. (1975) "A New in Situ Test for the Measurement of Horizontal Soil Deformability", Proc. Conf. on "In Situ Measurement of Soil Properties", ASCE Spec. Conf., Raleigh. 2. 255-259. (pdf format 2 MB)
. For a general overview, see the following comprehensive documents:
Readers unfamiliar with DMT: Totani et al. 2001 Bali, 6 pages (in Italian: Totani et al. 1999 Parma).
More detailed and extensive treatment : (a) In the form of paper : Marchetti 1997 Cairo and especially TC16 2001 Bali.
(b) In the form of a series of slides:
Marchetti 1999 Tokyo, Marchetti 2001 Torino. (c) In the form of Course Notes - User's Manual: Course Notes 2001 Bali
Papers (of the above list) grouped by topic - all downlodable
Settlements and compressibility: Schmertmann 86, Lacasse 86,
Leonards 88, Hayes 90, Iwasaki 91, Geopac 92, Jendeby 92, Woodward 93, Steiner 94, Tanaka
98, Failmezger 98-2000, Failmezger et al. 99, Pelnik et al.99, Schnaid et al 2000, Tice
& Knott 2000
PMT and DMT
: Schmertmann 87 Digest 9, Geopac 92, Kalteziotis 91, Lutenegger 88 and 90, Wong 93, Sawada 95, Ortigao 96, Schnaid 2000
Ch and K
by DMT: Robertson 88, Schmertmann 88, Marchetti 89, Totani 98
Liquefaction: Marchetti 82, Robertson 86 , Reyna 91, Tanaka 98, Milestones on liquefaction 98, TC16 2001
For personal or educational non-commercial use only.
The documents *.pdf, require Acrobat Reader, freely downloadable at :